Latvia is located in Northern Europe (not Eastern Europe as it is frequently assumed), at the east coast of the Baltic Sea. The State covers an area of 64 589 km2. The total length of Latvia's border is 1836 km, of which 1382 km is the land border. The country has land borders with Estonia, Russia, Belarus and Lithuania, and a sea border with Sweden, Lithuania and Estonia.

Water covers about 2340 km2, which is 3.62% of the total territory of the country. There are more than 12 000 rivers in Latvia with a total length of approximately 38 000 km. Daugava is Latvia's largest river with a length of 1,005 km, of which 352 km runs through the territory of Latvia, while the longest river is Gauja (452 miles).
In Latvia there are 2,256 lakes larger than 1 ha. The biggest lakes are Lubans, Raznas, Engures Lake and Burtnieks.

Ventas Rumba waterfall (240 meters wide) which is located in Kuldiga, is the widest waterfall in Europe.

Latvia is a typical lowland country, its territory formed at the ice age. The highest point in its relief is a 311.6 meter high hill − Gaizinkalns.

Latvia is in the temperate zone and its climate is affected by the proximity of the sea and the air mass carried from the Atlantic Ocean, resulting in a mild and humid climate with four typical seasons. The sky is often clouded, on average, 160-180 days a year. The average rainfall varies from 574 to 691 mm per year.